Document Type : Research Articles


University of Kashan


Electric spring (ES) is a new technology that can be used for fast demand-side management to balance the power between generation and consumption in smart grids. In this paper, the back-to-back structure of electric spring is controlled to operate simultaneously as electric spring and shunt active power filter (shunt-APF). That means the series part of the back-to-back electric spring regulates the critical load voltage and applies the demand-side management and the parallel part operates as a shunt active power filter capable of power factor correction and current harmonic compensation. In the proposed structure, due to harmonic compensation and power factor improvement by the parallel inverter, the output power capacity of the electric spring is increased compared with the first and second generation of electric springs (ES-1 and ES-2), and the performance is improved in critical conditions. Additionally, to improve the robustness of the control system against uncertainties in the grid system, two fuzzy logic controllers are designed to control the voltage of the electric spring and the DC link voltage. The theoretical analysis is validated by simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.


Main Subjects

[1] I. Koutsopoulos, and L. Tassiulas, “Challenges in
demand load control for the smart grid,” IEEE Network,
vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 16-21, 2011.

[2] X. Liang, “Emerging Power Quality Challenges Due to
Integration of Renewable Energy Sources,” IEEE
Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 53, no. 2,
pp. 855-866, 2017.

[3] S. A. Shirmardi, M. Joorabian, and H. Barati, “Green
Micro-Grid Operation Constrained to Reliability and
Flexibility Indices in the Presence of Distributed
Generations and Energy Storage Systems,”
International Journal of Industrial Electronics Control
and Optimization, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 397-407, 2021.

[4] L. Wang, C. Lam, and M. Wong, “Hybrid Structure of
Static Var Compensator and Hybrid Active Power Filter
(SVC//HAPF) for Medium-Voltage Heavy Loads
Compensation,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 4432-4442, 2018.

[5] C. Ju, P. Wang, L. Goel, and Y. Xu, “A Two-Layer
Energy Management System for Microgrids With
Hybrid Energy Storage Considering Degradation
Costs,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 6,
pp. 6047-6057, 2018.

[6] Z. Bao, W. Qiu, L. Wu, F. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Li, and Z.
Li, “Optimal Multi-Timescale Demand Side Scheduling
Considering Dynamic Scenarios of Electricity
Demand,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 10,
no. 3, pp. 2428-2439, 2019.

[7] X. Kong, C. Li, F. Zheng, and C. Wang, “Improved
Deep Belief Network for Short-Term Load Forecasting
Considering Demand-Side Management,” IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 35, no. 2, pp.
1531-1538, 2020.

[8] M. A. A. Pedrasa, T. D. Spooner, and I. F. MacGill,
“Scheduling of Demand Side Resources Using Binary
Particle Swarm Optimization,” IEEE Transactions on
Power Systems, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1173-1181, 2009.

[9] G. Buja, S. Giacomuzzi, Q. Wang, and M. Bertoluzzo,
“Demand-Side Power Paradigm-Oriented Analysis of
Reactive Electric Spring Stabilization Capabilities,”
IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 213662-213670, 2020.

[10] Y. Qi, T. Yang, J. Fang, Y. Tang, K. R. R. Potti, and K.
Rajashekara, “Grid Inertia Support Enabled by Smart
Loads,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.
36, no. 1, pp. 947-957, 2021.

[11] J. Zhang, G. Ma, X. Lyu, M. Li, J. Xu, and X. Wu,
“Research on Scheduling Control Strategy of LargeScale Air Conditioners Based on Electric Spring,”
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy
Systems, vol. 124, pp. 106398, 2021.
[12] S. Y. Hui, C. K. Lee, and F. F. Wu, “Electric Springs—
A New Smart Grid Technology,” IEEE Transactions on
Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1552-1561, 2012.

[13] S. Tan, C. K. Lee, and S. Y. Hui, “General Steady-State
Analysis and Control Principle of Electric Springs With
Active and Reactive Power Compensations,” IEEE
Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 8, pp.
3958-3969, 2013.

[14] C. K. L. a. S. Y. R. Hui, “Input AC Voltage Control Bidirectiobal Power Converters ” U.S.patent, 2013.

[15] S. Yan, C. Lee, T. Yang, K. Mok, S. Tan, B. Chaudhuri,
and S. Y. R. Hui, “Extending the Operating Range of
Electric Spring Using Back-To-Back Converter:
Hardware Implementation and Control,” IEEE
Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 32, no. 7, pp.
5171-5179, 2017.

[16] Z. Rui, F. Shi, D. Shu, Z. Yan, and X. Luo, "A Flexible
Multi-objective Coordinated Control Strategy for Smart
Loads Based on Electric Springs." IEEE/IAS Industrial
and Commercial Power System Asia (I&CPS Asia), pp.
1344-1349, 2020.

[17] M. S. Javaid, U. B. Irshad, A. Hussein, and M. A. Abido,
"A Novel Fuzzy Logic Controller for Smart Load
Voltage Regulation." International Conference on
Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP), pp. 620-624, 2017.

[18] S. Disha, “Designing and Modeling Fuzzy Control
Systems,” International Journal of Computer
Applications, vol. 16, 02/28, 2011.