Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran


This paper presents microgrid (MG) operation constrained to the reliability, flexibility, and environment indices in the presence of distributed generations (DGs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). The proposed scheme minimizes the total expected operating cost of MGs and DGs. It is also subject to alternating current (AC) power flow equations of MGs, constraints of operation, reliability, and flexibility in MG, and operation model of power sources and storage devices. Stochastic programming is incorporated to model uncertainties of load, energy price, the active power of renewable energy generation, availability of MG equipment, sources, and storage devices. Following on, a hybrid solver formed by combining artificial bee colony (ABC) and sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is adopted to achieve the optimal solution with approximate conditions of unique ultimate response. Eventually, the suggested scheme is implemented on a 69-bus radial MG, where the numerical results confirm the capability of the scheme in improving the operation, reliability, flexibility, and environment status of the MG.


Main Subjects

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