Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

1 the Department of Electrical Engineering, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

In this paper, an adaptive event-triggered consensus problem considering the time delay of the communication network is studied for heterogeneous multi-agent systems. An event-triggered interval is here considered as a specific delay and unified round trip time (RTT) delay. Furthermore, an efficient optimal predictive-based coordination control strategy is introduced for balancing the non-ideal behaviors of communication channels. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method for controlling network-based multi-agent systems with coupled subsystems, two stages are studied. In the first stage, the very method is implemented on two coupled continuous stirred tank reactors while in the second one, it is used for controlling the voltage and current of a DC microgrid consisting of several distributed generation units. To prevent the unessential utilization of communication resources, the transfer of information will actually occur in this mechanism if a specific event is triggered. The simulation results show the fact that in spite of being non-ideal and time-delayed communication channels, the proposed technique is capable for improving the performance of power grids.

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1] M. Vosoogh, M. Rashidinejad, A. Abdollahi, and M.
Ghaseminezhad, "Efficient Networked Microgrid
Management Considering Plug-in Electric Vehicles and
Storage Units," International Journal of Industrial
Electronics Control and Optimization, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.
245-255, 2021.

[2] M. Ahmadi Kamarposhti, "Optimal Control of Islanded
Micro grid Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm,"
International Journal of Industrial Electronics Control and
Optimization, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 53-60, 2018.

[3] Y. Jafarian, A. Karimi, and H. Bevrani, "Secondary Voltage
Control in a Hybrid Microgrid," International Journal of
Industrial Electronics Control and Optimization, Vol. 2, No.
3, pp. 221-232, 2019.

[4] E. Planas, J. Andreu, J. I. Gárate, I. Martínez de Alegría, and
E. Ibarra, "AC and DC technology in microgrids: A review,"
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 43, No. C,
pp. 726-749, 2015.

[5] E. Unamuno and J. Barrena, "Hybrid ac/dc microgrids Part
I: Review and classification of topologies," Renewable &
Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 52, pp. 1251-1259, 2015.

[6] D. Hammerstrom, "AC Versus DC Distribution SystemsDid
We Get it Right?," 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Society
General Meeting, pp. 1-5, 2007.

[7] E. Unamuno and J. Barrena, "Hybrid ac/dc microgrids Part
II: Review and classification of control strategies,"
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 52, pp.
1123-1134, 2015.

[8] S. Trip, M. Cucuzzella, X. Cheng, and J. Scherpen,
"Distributed Averaging Control for Voltage Regulation and
Current Sharing in DC Microgrids," IEEE Control Systems
Letters, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 174-179, 2019.

[9] J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, J. Matas, L. G. d. Vicuna, and
M. Castilla, "Hierarchical Control of Droop-Controlled AC
and DC MicrogridsA General Approach Toward
Standardization," IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 158-172, 2011.

[10] L. Meng, T. Dragicevic, J. Roldán-Pérez, J. C. Vasquez, and
J. M. Guerrero, "Modeling and Sensitivity Study of
Consensus Algorithm-Based Distributed Hierarchical
Control for DC Microgrids," IEEE Transactions on Smart
Grid, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 1504-1515, 2016.

[11] J. Zhao and F. Dörfler, "Distributed control and optimization
in DC microgrids," Automatica, Vol. 61, No. C, pp. 1826,
2015.

[12] C. De Persis, E. R. A. Weitenberg, and F. Dörfler, "A power
consensus algorithm for DC microgrids," Automatica, Vol.
89, pp. 364-375, 2018.

[13] P. Prabhakaran, Y. Goyal, and V. Agarwal, "Novel
Nonlinear Droop Control Techniques to Overcome the Load
Sharing and Voltage Regulation Issues in DC Microgrid,"
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp.
4477-4487, 2018.

[14] M. Cucuzzella, S. Trip, C. D. Persis, X. Cheng, A. Ferrara,
and A. v. d. Schaft, "A Robust Consensus Algorithm for
Current Sharing and Voltage Regulation in DC Microgrids,"
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 27,
No. 4, pp. 1583-1595, 2019.

[15] Y. Batmani, M. Davoodi, and N. Meskin, "Event-Triggered
Suboptimal Tracking Controller Design for a Class of
Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems," IEEE Transactions on
Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, pp. 8079-8087, 2017.

[16] Z. Wu, Y. Xu, R. Lu, Y. Wu, and T. Huang, "Event-
Triggered Control for Consensus of Multiagent Systems
With Fixed/Switching Topologies," IEEE Transactions on
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, Vol. 48, No. 10,
pp. 1736-1746, 2018.

[17] M. Davoodi, N. Meskin, and K. Khorasani, "Event-
Triggered Multiobjective Control and Fault Diagnosis: A
Unified Framework," IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Informatics, Vol. 13, pp. 298-311, 2017.

[18] C. Peng, J. Zhang, and H. Yan, "Adaptive Event-Triggering
${H}_{¥infty }$ Load Frequency Control for Network-
Based Power Systems," IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Electronics, Vol. 65, pp. 1685-1694, 2018.

[19] T. Shi, T. Tang, and J. Bai, "Distributed event-triggered
control co-design for large-scale systems via static output
feedback," J. Frankl. Inst., Vol. 356, pp. 10393-10404, 2019.

[20] R. Han, L. Meng, J. M. Guerrero, and J. C. Vasquez,
"Distributed Nonlinear Control With Event-Triggered
Communication to Achieve Current-Sharing and Voltage
Regulation in DC Microgrids," IEEE Transactions on
Power Electronics, Vol. 33, No. 7, pp. 6416-6433, 2018.

[21] S. Yuan, C. Yu, and J. Sun, "Adaptive event-triggered
consensus control of linear multi-agent systems with cyber
attacks," Neurocomputing, Vol. 442, pp. 1-9, 2021.

[22] H. Wang, B. Xue, and A. Xue, "Leader-following consensus
control for semi-Markov jump multi-agent systems: An
adaptive event-triggered scheme," Journal of the Franklin
Institute, Vol. 358, No. 1, pp. 428-447, 2021.

[23] Y. Cui, M. Fei, and D. Du, "Event-triggered cooperative
compensation control for consensus of heterogeneous multi-
agent systems," Iet Control Theory and Applications, Vol.
10, pp. 1573-1582, 2016.

[24] X. Ge and Q. Han, "Distributed Formation Control of
Networked Multi-Agent Systems Using a Dynamic Event-
Triggered Communication Mechanism," IEEE Transactions
on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 64, No. 10, pp. 8118-8127,
2017.

[25] X. Yin, D. Yue, S. Hu, and H. Zhang, "Distributed adaptive
model-based event-triggered predictive control for
consensus of multiagent systems," International Journal of
Robust and Nonlinear Control, Vol. 28, No. 18, pp. 6180-
6201, 2018.

[26] W. Zou and Z. Xiang, "Event-triggered distributed
containment control of heterogeneous linear multi-agent
systems by an output regulation approach," International
Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 48, No. 10, pp. 2041-2054,
2017.

[27] R. Yang, H. Zhang, G. Feng, H. Yan, and Z. Wang, "Robust
cooperative output regulation of multi-agent systems via
adaptive event-triggered control," Automatica, Vol. 102, pp.
129-136, 2019.

[28] h. chahkandi nejad, M. Farshad, and R. Havangi, "Designing
Indirect Adaptive Multiple Controller for LTI Systems with
Large Time Varying and Unknown Delay in Control Input
Based on Online Estimation of Delay by Kalman filtering,"
International Journal of Industrial Electronics Control and
Optimization, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-11, 2021.

[29] S. Rahmati and H. Eliasi, "Robust Decentralized Model
Predictive Control for a Class of Interconnected systems,"
International Journal of Industrial Electronics Control and
Optimization, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 327-336, 2020.

[30] E.-K. Boukas, Stochastic Switching Systems, 1 st ed.,
Birkhäuser Basel, 2006.

[31] Y. Sun and N. H. El-Farra, "Quasi-decentralized model-
based networked control of process systems," Computers &
Chemical Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 2016-2029, 2008.

[32] A. Sinha and R. K. Mishra, "Control of a nonlinear
continuous stirred tank reactor via event triggered sliding
modes," Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 187, pp. 52-59,
2018.

[33] M. Mola, N. Meskin, K. Khorasani, and A. Massoud,
"Distributed Event-Triggered Consensus-Based Control of
DC Microgrids in Presence of DoS Cyber Attacks," IEEE
Access, Vol. 9, pp. 54009-54021, 2021.

[34] M. Tucci, L. Meng, J. M. Guerrero, and G. Ferrari-Trecate,
"Plug-and-play control and consensus algorithms for current
sharing in DC microgrids," IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 50,
No. 1, pp. 12440-12445, 2017.