Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

1 Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training

2 Faculty of Engineering Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 University of Sistan and Baluchestan

Abstract

An RF energy harvester (rectenna) consists of a broadband monopole antenna and a quad-band rectifying circuit is designed to harvest EM wave energy in the frequency range of 1.412 GHz to 8.56 GHz, which covers GSM-1800, LTE-band, Wimax, Wi-Fi, and WLAN. The initial component of the rectenna is an antenna that includes a semi-circular radiating patch with 8 circular stubs and a semicircle ground plane. The simulation results show the antenna has −10 dB impedance bandwidth at 7.148 GHz (from 1.412 GHz to 8.56 GHz). The second part of the rectenna is a rectifier circuit with a quad-band matching network for RF to DC conversion. The rectifier benefits from a two-stage Dickson rectifier using Schottky diodes. The RF-DC conversion efficiency and output DC voltage are simulated, and the maximum output voltage of the rectifier with the optimum load resistance of R=12 kΩ is 7.2 V, and the peak conversion efficiency is 65.3% when the input power to the rectifier is -4 dBm at 1.71 GHz.

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1] R. J. Vullers, R. Van Schaijk, H. J. Visser, J. Penders, and
C. Van Hoof, Energy harvesting for autonomous wireless
sensor networks, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine, vol.
2, no. 2, pp. 29-38, 2010.

[2] C. R. Valenta and G. D. Durgin, Harvesting wireless
power: Survey of energy-harvester conversion efficiency in
far-field, wireless power transfer systems, IEEE
Microwave Magazine, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 108-120, 2014.

[3] C. Fu, O. Elmazria, F. Sarry, T. Mahalingam, S. S. Yang,
and K. Lee, Development of wireless, battery free
gyroscope based on one-port SAW delay line and double
resonant antenna, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol.
220, pp. 270-280, 2014.

[4] E. O. Torres and G. A. Rincón-Mora, Electrostatic energy-
harvesting and battery-charging CMOS system prototype”,
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular
Papers, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 1938-1948, 2008..

[5] Q. Awais, Y. Jin, H. T. Chattha, M. Jamil, H. Qiang, and B.
A. Khawaja, A compact rectenna system with high
conversion efficiency for wireless energy harvesting”, IEEE
Access, vol. 6, pp. 35857-35866, 2018.

[6] S. Agrawal, M. S. Parihar, and P. Kondekar, Broadband
rectenna for radio frequency energy harvesting application,
IETE Journal of Research, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 347-353, 2018.

[7] Y. Shi, Y. Fan, Y. Li, L. Yang, and M. Wang, An efficient
broadband slotted rectenna for wireless power transfer at
LTE band”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and
Propagation, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 814-822, 2018.

[8] O. M. Dardeer, H. A. Elsadek, and E. A. Abdallah,
Compact broadband Rectenna for harvesting RF energy in
WLAN and WiMAX applications”, in 2019 International
Conference on Innovative Trends in Computer Engineering
(ITCE), 2019, pp. 292-296: IEEE.

[9] A. Collado and A. Georgiadis, Conformal hybrid solar and
electromagnetic (EM) energy harvesting rectenna, IEEE
Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers,
vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 2225-2234, 2013.

[10] M.-J. Nie, X.-X. Yang, G.-N. Tan, and B. Han, A compact
2.45-GHz broadband rectenna using grounded coplanar
waveguide, IEEE antennas and wireless propagation
letters, vol. 14, pp. 986-989, 2015.

[11] Y. Shi, J. Jing, Y. Fan, L. Yang, Y. Li, and M. Wang, A
novel compact broadband rectenna for ambient RF energy
harvesting”, AEU-International Journal of Electronics and
Communications, vol. 95, pp. 264-270, 2018.

[12] C. Song, Y. Huang, J. Zhou, J. Zhang, S. Yuan, and P.
Carter, A high-efficiency broadband rectenna for ambient
wireless energy harvesting”, IEEE Transactions on
Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 3486-3495,
2015.

[13] M. M. Mansour and H. Kanaya, Compact and broadband
RF rectifier with 1.5 octave bandwidth based on a simple
pair of L-section matching network”, IEEE Microwave and
Wireless Components Letters, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 335-337,
2018.

[14] H. S. Park and S. K. Hong, Broadband RF-to-DC rectifier
with uncomplicated matching network”, IEEE Microwave
and Wireless Components Letters, 2019.

[15] H. Ozdemir and T. Nesimoglu, Microwave energy
harvesting by using a broadband fractal antenna and a dual-
band rectifier”, in 2018 18th Mediterranean Microwave
Symposium (MMS), pp. 279-282: IEEE.

[16] H. Sun, Y.-x. Guo, M. He, and Z. Zhong, Design of a high-
efficiency 2.45-GHz rectenna for low-input-power energy
harvesting”, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation
Letters, vol. 11, pp. 929-932, 2012.

[17] L. Shen and X. Yang, A novel rectifier circuit operating at
dual-frequencies of 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz”, in 2013 IEEE
MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF
and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare
Applications (IMWS-BIO), 2013, pp. 1-3: IEEE.

[18]
D.-K. Ho, I. Kharrat, V.-D. Ngo, T.-P. Vuong, Q.-C.
Nguyen, and M.
-T. Le, Dual-band rectenna for ambient RF
energy harvesting at GSM 900 MHz and 1800 MHz
”, in
Sustainable Energy Technologies (ICSET), 2016 IEEE

International Conference on
, 2016, pp. 306-310: IEEE.

[19] L. M. Borges et al., Design and evaluation of multi-band
RF energy harvesting circuits and antennas for WSNs”, in
Telecommunications (ICT), 2014 21st International
Conference on, 2014, pp. 308-312: IEEE.

[20]
T. Skaik, A Quad-band rectifier design with improved
m
atching bandwidth for RF energy harvesting applications”,in Promising Electronic Technologies (ICPET), 2017
International Conference on, 2017, pp. 82-86: IEEE.

[21] C.-Y. Hsu, S.-C. Lin, and Z.-M. Tsai, Quad-band rectifier
using resonant matching networks for enhanced harvesting
capability”, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components
Letters, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 669-671, 2017.

[22] A. M. Jie, M. F. Karim, L. Bin, F. Chin, and M. Ong, A
proximity-coupled circularly polarized slotted-circular
patch antenna for RF energy harvesting applications”, in
Region 10 Conference (TENCON), 2016 IEEE, 2016, pp.
2027-2030: IEEE.

[23] M. Aboualalaa, A. B. Abdel-Rahman, A. Allam, H. Elsadek,
and R. K. Pokharel, Design of a dual-band microstrip
antenna with enhanced gain for energy harvesting
applications”, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation
Letters, vol. 16, pp. 1622-1626, 2017.

[24]
S. Datta, K. Kar, M. Pal, and R. Ghatak, Fractal shaped
a
ntenna based tri-band energy harvester”, Advanced
Electromagnetics,
vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 22-26, 2017.

[25]
C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John
wiley & son
s, 2016.

[26] Skyworks, Datasheet, Surface Mount Mixer and Detector
Schottky Diodes.