Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology ‎, Babol, Iran.

2 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology ‎, Babol, Iran

3 Babol Noshirvani University of Technology

4 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Bojnord , Bojnord, Iran.

Abstract

In recent years, concerns about environmental pollutions have risen and in this respect, the power system and transportation section have been introduced as the main sources of their emission. Therefore, renewable energy sources (RESs), predominantly wind generation, can be effective for reducing emissions caused by the power system, and electric vehicles (EVs) can be very useful for decreasing emissions in the transportation section. However, RESs are intermittent and uncertain, and on the other hand, high penetration of EVs into the system can be challenging for power system operation. Consequently, the stochastic behavior of RESs and charging demand of EVs should be considered in the daily operation scheduling of generating units that is known as the unit commitment (UC) problem. In this regard, this paper presents a two-stage stochastic programming model for the security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) taking into account the effect of EVs penetration and wind power integration into the power system. The effect of EV travels on the demand of busses is modeled in the proposed framework. Moreover, the impact of demand response (DR) programs on the operation cost of the system is considered. The results of simulations in a six-bus test system illustrate that high EVs penetration reduces power system security and increases the system operation cost, but DR programs can compensate for these negative effects. Moreover, the increase in cost in a controlled charging mode can be insignificant.

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1] R. Lotfi, A. Mostafaeipour, N. Mardani, and S. Mardani,
“Investigation of wind farm location planning by
considering budget constraints,Int. J. Sustain. Energy, vol.
37, no. 8, pp. 799817, Feb. 2018.

[2] M. Duvall et al., “Transportation Electrification: A
Technology Overview,” Electric Power Research Institute
June. 2011.

[3] A. I. Negash, T. W. Haring, and D. S. Kirschen, “Allocating
the cost of demand response compensation in wholesale
energy markets,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 30, no. 3,
pp. 15281535, May. 2015.

[4] J. Aghaei, and M. I. Alizadeh, “Demand Response in Smart
Electricity Grids Equipped with Renewable Energy
Sources: A Review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Reviews, vol.
18, pp. 64-72, Feb. 2013.

[5] M. Alhaider, L. Fan, and Z. Miao, “Benders Decomposition
for stochastic programming-based PV/Battery/HVAC
planning,” IEEE Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meet., vol. 2016-
Novem, 2016.

[6] M. Honarmand, A. Zakariazadeh and S. Jadid, “Integrated
scheduling of renewable generation and electric vehicles
parking lot in a smart microgrid,” Energy Conversion and
Management, vol. 86, pp. 745-755, Oct. 2014.

[7] C. Shaoand, X. Wang, X. Wang, C. Du, C. Dang and S. Liu
“Cooperative Dispatch of Wind Generation and Electric
Vehicles With Battery Storage Capacity Constraints in
SCUC,” IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 5, pp.
2219-2226, Sep. 2014.

[8] Q. Cai, Z. Xu, F. Wen, L. L. Lai and K. P. Wong. “Security
Constrained Unit Commitment-based Power System
Dispatching with Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” IEEE
13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics
(INDIN), pp. 1014-1021, Jul. 2015.

[9] C. Shao, X. Wang, M. Shahidehpour, X. Wang, B. Wang.
“Security-Constrained Unit Commitment with Flexible
Uncertainty Set for Variable Wind Power,” IEEE
Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1-9,
Feb. 2017.

[10] J. Zhao, C. Wan, Z. Xu, K. P. Wong. “Spinning Reserve
Requirement Optimization Considering Integration of Plug-
in Electric Vehicles,” IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, vol.
8, no. 4, pp. 2009-2021, June. 2016.

[11] H. Wu, M. Shahidehpour, A. Alabdulwahab and A.
Abusorrah. “Demand Response Exchange in the Stochastic
Day-Ahead Scheduling With Variable Renewable
Generation,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy,
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1-10, Apr. 2015.

[12] C. Liu, J. Wang, A. Botterud, Y. Zhou and A. Vyas.
“Assessment of Impacts of PHEV Charging Patternson
Wind-Thermal Scheduling by Stochastic Unit
Commitment,” IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no.
2, pp. 675-683, Jun. 2012.

[13] M. E. Khodayar, L. Wu and M. Shahidehpour. “Hourly
Coordination of Electric Vehicle Operation and Volatile
Wind Power Generation in SCUC,” IEEE Transactions on
Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1271-1279, Sep. 2012.

[14] N. Neyestani, M. Y. Damavandi and G. Chicoo, “Effects of
PEV Traffic Flows on the Operation of Parking Lots and
Charging Stations,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid,
vol. 9, no. 2 , pp. 1521-1530, July. 2017.

[15] D. Madzharov, E. Delarue, W. Dhaeseleer, “Integrating
electric vehicles as flexible load in unit commitment
modeling,” Energy, vol. 65, pp. 285-294, June. 2013.

[16] C. Sahin, M. Shahidehpour and I. Erkmen, Allocation of
Hourly Reserve versus Demand Response for Security-
Constrained Scheduling of Stochastic Wind Energy,”
IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 4, pp. 219-
228, Jan. 2013.

[17] M. Ramezanzade, M. Jafari-Nokandi, T. Barforoshi,
“Scheduling of generation and reserve of
thermal generation resources considering load and wind
uncertainty in presence of energy storage and demand
response,” TABRIZ Journal of Electrical Engineering,
vol. 48, vol. 2, no. 84, pp. 653-665, 2018.

[18] G. Morales-España, Á. Lorca, and M. M. de Weerdt,
Robust unit commitment with dispatchable wind power,”
Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 155, no. February, pp. 5866,
Feb. 2018.

[19] Z. Yang, K. Li, Q. Niu, and Y. Xue, “A comprehensive
study of economic unit commitment of power systems
integrating various renewable generations and plug-in
electric vehicles,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 132, pp.
460481, Jun. 2017.

[20] M. Shahbazitabar and H. Abdi, “A novel priority-based
stochastic unit commitment considering renewable energy
sources and parking lot cooperation,” Energy, vol. 161, pp.
308324, Oct. 2018.

[21] M. A. Mirzaei, A. S. Yazdankhah, and B. Mohammadi-
Ivatloo, “Integration of Demand Response and Hydrogen
Storage System in Security Constrained Unit Commitment
with High Penetration of Wind Energy,” 26th Iran. Conf.
Electr. Eng. ICEE 2018, pp. 12031208, 2018.

[22] M. Hosseini Imani, M. Jabbari Ghadi, S. Shamshirband, and
M. Balas, “Impact Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Parking
on Solving Security-Constrained Unit Commitment
Problem,” Math. Comput. Appl., vol. 23, no. 1, p. 13,
March. 2018.

[23] M. A. Mirzaei, A. Sadeghi Yazdankhah, and B.
Mohammadi-Ivatloo, “Stochastic security-constrained
operation of wind and hydrogen energy storage systems
integrated with price-based demand response,” Int. J.
Hydrogen Energy, vol. 44, no. 27, pp. 1421714227, May.
2019.

[24] M. H. Imani, K. Yousefpour, M. J. Ghadi, and M. T.
Andani, “Simultaneous presence of wind farm and V2G in
security constrained unit commitment problem considering
uncertainty of wind generation,” 2018 IEEE Texas Power
Energy Conf. TPEC 2018, vol. 2018Febru, pp. 16, Feb.
2018.

[25] Y. Sun, J. Dong, and L. Ding, “Optimal day-ahead wind-
thermal unit commitment considering statistical and
predicted features of wind speeds,” Energy Convers.
Manag., vol. 142, pp. 347356, Jun. 2017.

[26] K. H. Jo and M. K. Kim, “Stochastic unit commitment
based on multi-scenario tree method considering
uncertainty,” Energies, vol. 11, no. 4, March. 2018.

[27] https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2019

[28] K. W. Hedman, M. C
. Ferris, R. P. O'Neill, E. B. Fisher and
S. S. Oren, "Co
-optimization of Generation Unit
Commitment and Transmission Switching with N
-
1
Reliability," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol.
25, pp. 1052
-1063, June. 2010.

[29] M. A. Ortega-Vazquez and D. S. Kirschen, “Estimating the
Spinning Reserve Requirements in Systems
with Significant Wind Power Generation
Penetration,” IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, vol. 22,
no. 1, pp. 24-33, March. 2009.

[30] A. J. Conejo, M. Carrión and J. M. Morales, Decision
Making under Uncertainty in Electricity Markets, Springer,
New York, 2010
.

[31] S
. M. Hossein. Imani, S. Asghari, and M. T. Ameli.
“Considering the Load Uncertainty for Solving Security

Constrained Unit Commitment Problem in Presence of

Plug
-in Electric Vehicle,The 22nd Iranian Conference on
Electrical Engineering (ICEE)
, pp. 725-732, May 2014.