Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

1 electrical, Electrical and computer engineering, university of kurdistan, sanandaj, iran

2 electrical and computer engineering, university of kurdistan, sanandaj, iran

3 Department of Electrical Engineering The University of Kurdistan Iran, Kurdistan

Abstract

The use of renewable energy sources in microgrids has grown dramatically in recent years. The absence of a rotational mass in these microgrids and their interfaces leads to a lack of inertia and consequently, frequency and voltage instability. To cope with these dilemmas, the virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been introduced as an effective solution. This paper first focuses on modeling a VSG using basic electrical equations. It, then, proffers a transient fuzzy controller augmented on virtual inertia’s topology. Inspired by the FACTS’ performance, the privileged specifications such as STATCOM fluctuation damping ability for major perturbations at transient times are appended to the VSG scheme by a fuzzy controller. This controller is implemented with a feedback from the system voltage angle and its derivative, as well as in frequency and its derivative. The modified coefficients of both active and reactive powers are outputs of the fuzzy system. Using the proposed fuzzy controller, the transient response of VSG-based microgrids is improved. Simplicity and ability to improve the transient response are the principal specifications of the proposed configuration. Simulation results confirm the improvement of the presented method by the introduced augmented VSG control mechanism.

Keywords

[1] H. Bevrani and T. Ise, Microgrid dynamics and control.
John Wiley & Sons, 2017.

[2] H. Bevrani, T. Ise, and Y. Miura, “Virtual synchronous
generators: A survey and new perspectives,” Int. J. Electr.
Power Energy Syst., vol. 54, pp. 244254, 2014.

[3] M. S. Haritha and D. S. Nair, “Review on virtual
synchronous generator (VSG) for enhancing performance
of microgrid,” EPSCICON 2018 - 4th Int. Conf. Power,
Signals, Control Comput., pp. 15, 2018.

[4] S. D’Arco and J. A. Suul, “Virtual synchronous
machinesClassification of implementations and
analysis of equivalence to droop controllers for
microgrids,” in PowerTech (POWERTECH), 2013 IEEE
Grenoble, 2013, pp. 17.

[5] M. A. Torres L, L. A. C. Lopes, L. A. Moran T, and J. R.
Espinoza C, “Self-tuning virtual synchronous machine: a
control strategy for energy storage systems to support
dynamic frequency control,” IEEE Trans. Energy
Convers., vol. 29, pp. 833840, 2014.

[6] Y. Cao et al., “A Virtual Synchronous Generator Control
Strategy for VSC-MTDC Systems,” IEEE Trans. Energy
Convers., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 750761, 2018.

[7] J. Liu, Y. Miura, H. Bevrani, and T. Ise, “Enhanced virtual
synchronous generator control for parallel inverters in
microgrids,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 8, pp. 2268
2277, 2016.

[8] C. Yuan, C. Liu, X. Zhang, T. Zhao, X. Xiao, and N. Tang,
“Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics between Virtual
Synchronous Machines Adopting Different Active Power
Droop Controls,” J. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 3, pp.
766776, 2017.

[9] Z. Wang, F. Zhuo, H. Yi, J. Wu, F. Wang, and Z. Zeng,
“Analysis of Dynamic Frequency Performance among
Voltage-controlled Inverters Considering Virtual Inertia
Interaction in Microgrid,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. PP,
no. c, pp. 11, 2019.

[10] J. Liu, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, “Comparison of dynamic
characteristics between virtual synchronous generator and
droop control in inverter-based distributed generators,”
IEEE Trans. Power Electron, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 3600
3611, 2016.

[11] J. Alipoor, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, “Power system
stabilization using virtual synchronous generator with
alternating moment of inertia,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top.
Power Electron., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 451458, 2015.

[12] T. Shintai, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, “Oscillation damping of
a distributed generator using a virtual synchronous
generator,” IEEE Trans. power Deliv., vol. 29, no. 2, pp.
668676, 2014.

[13] Y. Chen, R. Hesse, D. Turschner, and H.-P. Beck,
“Dynamic properties of the virtual synchronous machine
(VISMA),” Proc. ICREPQ, vol. 11, 2011.

[14] H. Wu et al., “Small-signal modeling and parameters
design for virtual synchronous generators,” IEEE Trans.
Ind. Electron., vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 42924303, 2016.

[15] S. D’Arco and J. A. Suul, “Equivalence of virtual
synchronous machines and frequency-droops for
converter-based microgrids,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid,
vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 394395, 2014.

[16] J. M. Guerrero, L. G. De Vicuna, J. Matas, M. Castilla,
and J. Miret, “A wireless controller to enhance dynamic
performance of parallel inverters in distributed generation
systems,” IEEE Trans. power Electron., vol. 19, no. 5, pp.
12051213, 2004.

[17] J. M. Guerrero, N. Berbel, J. Matas, J. L. Sosa, J. Cruz,
and A. Alentorn, “Decentralized control for parallel
operation of distributed generation inverters using
resistive output impedance,” in Power Electronics and
Applications, 2005 European Conference on, 2005, pp.
10-pp.

[18] E. A. A. Coelho, P. C. Cortizo, and P. F. D. Garcia, “Small
signal stability for single phase inverter connected to stiff
AC system,” in Industry Applications Conference, 1999.
Thirty-Fourth IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of
the 1999 IEEE, 1999, vol. 4, pp. 21802187.

[19] S. A. Khajehoddin, M. K. Ghartemani, and M. Ebrahimi,
“Grid-Supporting Inverters with Improved Dynamics
Using Enhanced Virtual Synchronous Machine (eVSM),”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2018.

[20] K. Shi, H. Ye, W. Song, and G. Zhou, “Virtual Inertia
Control Strategy in Microgrid Based on Virtual
Synchronous Generator Technology,” IEEE Access, vol.
6, no. c, pp. 2794927957, 2018.

[21] J. Li, B. Wen, and H. Wang, “Adaptive virtual inertia
control strategy of VSG for micro-grid based on improved
bang-bang control strategy,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp.
3950939514, 2019.

[22] K. Dhingra and M. Singh, “Frequency support in a micro-
grid using virtual synchronous generator based charging
station,” IET Renew. Power Gener., vol. 12, no. 9, pp.
10341044, 2018.

[23] A. Karimipouya and H. Abdi, “Microgrid frequency
control using the virtual inertia and ANFIS-based
Controller,” vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 145154, 2019.

[24] F. Wang, L. Zhang, X. Feng, and H. Guo, “An Adaptive
Control Strategy for Virtual Synchronous Generator,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 51245133,
2018.

[25] P. S. Optimization, “Optimal Control of Islanded Micro
grid Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm,” vol.
1, no. 1, pp. 5360, 2018.

[26] Y. Chen, R. Hesse, D. Turschner, and H.-P. Beck,
“Improving the grid power quality using virtual
synchronous machines,” in Power engineering, energy
and electrical drives (POWERENG), 2011 international
conference on, 2011, pp. 16.

[27] Y. Xiang-Zhen, S. Jian-hui, D. Ming, L. Jin-wei, and D.
Yan, “Control strategy for virtual synchronous generator
in microgrid,” in Electric Utility Deregulation and
Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT), 2011 4th
International Conference on, 2011, pp. 16331637.

[28] Y. Chen, R. Hesse, D. Turschner, and H.-P. Beck,
“Comparison of methods for implementing virtual
synchronous machine on inverters,” in International
Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality,
2012, pp. 16.

[29] N. Soni, S. Doolla, and M. C. Chandorkar, “Improvement
of transient response in microgrids using virtual inertia,”
IEEE Trans. power Deliv., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 18301838,
2013.

[30] D. K. Dheer, N. Soni, and S. Doolla, “Improvement of
small signal stability margin and transient response in
inverter-dominated microgrids,” Sustain. Energy, Grids
Networks, vol. 5, pp. 135147, 2016.

[31] X. Hou, H. Han, C. Zhong, W. Yuan, M. Yi, and Y. Chen,
“Improvement of transient stability in inverter-based AC
microgrid via adaptive virtual inertia,” in Energy
Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2016 IEEE,
2016, pp. 16.

[32] Z. Xiaobo, W. Kangda, and Z. Baohui, “An improved
droop controller for eliminating control error in microgrid,”
in Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC),
2016 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific, 2016, pp. 11011105.

[33] D. Li, Q. Zhu, S. Lin, and X. Y. Bian, “A self-adaptive
inertia and damping combination control of VSG to
support frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Energy
Convers., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 397398, 2017.

[34] G. Yajuan, W. Weiyang, G. Xiaoqiang, and G. Herong,
“An improved droop controller for grid-connected voltage
source inverter in microgrid,” in Power Electronics for
Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2010 2nd IEEE
International Symposium on, 2010, pp. 823828.

[35] J. Meng, Y. Wang, C. Fu, and H. Wang, “Adaptive virtual
inertia control of distributed generator for dynamic
frequency support in microgrid,” in Energy Conversion
Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2016 IEEE, 2016, pp.
15.

[36] M. H. Haque, “Improvement of first swing stability limit
by utilizing full benefit of shunt FACTS devices,” IEEE
Trans. power Syst., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 18941902, 2004.

[37] S. Filizadeh and A. M. Gole, “Harmonic performance
analysis of an OPWM-controlled STATCOM in network
applications,” IEEE Trans. power Deliv., vol. 20, no. 2,
pp. 10011008, 2005.

[38] P. Wang, N. Jenkins, and M. H. J. Bollen, “Experimental
investigation of voltage sag mitigation by an advanced
static VAr compensator,” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol.
13, no. 4, pp. 14611467, 1998.

[39] B. Singh, R. Saha, A. Chandra, and K. Al-Haddad, “Static
synchronous compensators (STATCOM): a review,” IET
Power Electron., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 297324, 2009.

[40] J. Shi, A. Noshadi, A. Kalam, and P. Shi, “Fuzzy logic
control of DSTATCOM for improving power quality and
dynamic performance,” in Power Engineering
Conference (AUPEC), 2015 Australasian Universities,
2015, pp. 16.

[41] B. Singh and J. Solanki, “A comparison of control
algorithms for DSTATCOM,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,
vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 27382745, 2009.

[42] C. Li, R. Burgos, I. Cvetkovic, and D. Boroyevich,
“Active and reactive power flow analysis of a STATCOM
with virtual synchronous machine control,” in Control
and Modeling for Power Electronics (COMPEL), 2015
IEEE 16th Workshop on, 2015, pp. 18.

[43] C. Li, R. Burgos, I. Cvetkovic, D. Boroyevich, L. Mili,
and P. Rodriguez, “Evaluation and control design of
virtual-synchronous-machine-based STATCOM for grids
with high penetration of renewable energy,” in Energy
Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2014 IEEE,
2014, pp. 56525658.

[44] A. Karimi, Y. Khayat, M. Naderi, R. Mirzaee, and H.
Bevrani, “Improving transient performance of VSG based
microgrids by virtual FACTS’functions,” in Smart Grid
Conference (SGC), 2017, 2017, pp. 16.

[45] C. Andalib-Bin-Karim, X. Liang, and H. Zhang, “Fuzzy-
Secondary-Controller-Based Virtual Synchronous
Generator Control Scheme for Interfacing Inverters of
Renewable Distributed Generation in Microgrids,” IEEE
Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 10471061, 2018.

[46] Y. V. P. Kumar and R. Bhimasingu, “Fuzzy logic based
adaptive virtual inertia in droop control operation of the
microgrid for improved transient response,” in Asia-
Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference
(APPEEC), 2017 IEEE PES, 2017, pp. 16.

[47] Y. Hu, W. Wei, Y. Peng, and J. Lei, “Fuzzy virtual inertia
control for virtual synchronous generator,” in Control
Conference (CCC), 2016 35th Chinese, 2016, pp. 8523
8527.

[48] B. Rathore, S. Chakrabarti, and S. Anand, “Frequency
response improvement in microgrid using optimized VSG
control,” in Power Systems Conference (NPSC), 2016
National, 2016, pp. 16.

[49] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS :
concepts and technology of flexible AC transmission
systems. IEEE Press, 2000.