In this paper, a novel conformable fractional order (FO) sliding mode control technique is studied for a class of FO chaotic systems in the presence of uncertainties and disturbances. First, a novel FO nonlinear surface based on conformable FO calculus is proposed to design the FO sliding mode controller. Then, asymptotic stability of the controller is derived by means of the Lyapunov direct method via conformable FO operators. The stability analysis is performed in the sliding and reaching phase. In addition, the realization of reaching phase is guaranteed in finite time and the reaching time is calculated analytically. The proposed control approach has some superiorities. Reduction of the chattering phenomenon, high robustness against the uncertainty and external disturbance, and fast convergence speed are the main advantages of the proposed control scheme. Moreover, it has simple calculations because of using conformable FO operators in the control design. The numerical simulations verify the efficiency of the proposed controller.