Adaptive Gain Scheduling Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbines to Improve Fault Ride Through Performance

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

2 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, I.R.Iran

Abstract

The Doubly-Fed Induction Generators (DFIG) based Wind Turbines (WT) are widely used in WTs connected to power systems. Traditionally the back-to-back converters are used in order to control the DFIG. In this paper, an Indirect Matrix Converter (IMC) is utilized. Compared with back-to-back converters, IMCs have numerous advantages such as: higher level of robustness, reliability, reduced size and weight due to the absence of bulky electrolytic capacitor. According to the recent grid codes it is required that wind turbines remain connected to the grid during grid faults. It means that the plant must be in operation and be able to tolerate the fault conditions. This feature is called Fault Ride-Through (FRT) capability of wind plants. To improve FRT capability of the wind turbine, in this paper an adaptive gain scheduling controller is proposed. The proposed method could increase the damping of fault currents and hence attribute more time to controller for reactive power injection. Therefore, the new FRT standards are satisfied. PSIM simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] "World Wind Energy Report 2010" Report. World Wind Energy Association. Aprill 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.wwindea.org.

[2] Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.; Ritchie, E.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Bindner, H.; Sørensen, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.; , " Conceptual survey of Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines, " Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, December 2001.

[3] Wei, L.; Lipo, T.A.; , "A novel matrix converter topology with simple commutation," Industry Applications Conference, 2001. Thirty-Sixth IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE , vol.3, no., pp.1749-1754 vol.3, Sept. 30 2001-Oct. 4 2001.

[4] G. Michalke, “Variable Speed Wind Turbines- Modeling, Control, and Impact on Power Systems”,PhD Thesis, Riso National Laboratory, 2008.

[5] Z. Cheng and Y. Gangui, "Study on transient performance of doubly fed induction generator with crowbar during three-phase voltage dips," 2015 9th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE-ECCE Asia), Seoul, 2015, pp. 373-376.

[6] S. Yang, T. Zhou, X. Zhen, X. Zhang, R. Shao and L. Chang, "A SCR crowbar commutated with rotor-side converter for doubly fed wind turbines," 2015 IEEE 6th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), Aachen, 2015, pp. 1-7.

[7] M. A. Chowdhury, A. H. M. Sayem, W. Shen and K. S. Islam, "Robust active disturbance rejection controller design to improve low-voltage ride-through capability of doubly fed induction generator wind farms," in IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 9, 11 2015, no. 8, pp. 961-969.

[8] Wei Zhang; Peng Zhou; Yikang He; , "Analysis of the by-pass resistance of an active crowbar for doubly-fed induction generator based wind turbines under grid faults," Electrical Machines and Systems, 2008. ICEMS 2008. International Conference on , vol., no., pp.2316-2321, 17-20 Oct. 2008

[9] Ahmad Khajeh and Reza Ghazi, “Control of DFIG Wind Turbines Based on Indirect Matrix Converters in Short Circuit Mode to Improve the LVRT Capability,” Advances in Power Electronics, vol. 2013, Article ID 157431, 11 pages, 2013.

[10] Næss, B.I.; Molinas, M.; Undeland, T.; , "Laboratory tests of ride through for doubly fed induction generators, " In NWPC, Espoo, Finland, May, 2006

[11] G. Tsourakis and C.D. Vournas, " Simulation of low voltage ride through capability of wind turbines with double fed induction generator," In EWEC, Athens, Greece, March 2006

[12] M. A. Chowdhury, A. H. M. Sayem, W. Shen and K. S. Islam, "Robust active disturbance rejection controller design to improve low-voltage ride-through capability of doubly fed induction generator wind farms," in IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 9, 11 2015, no. 8, pp. 961-969.

[13]  Q. Huang, X. Zou, D. Zhu and Y. Kang, "Scaled Current Tracking Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator to Ride-Through Serious Grid Faults," in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 31, March 2016, no. 3, pp. 2150-2165.

[14] Ghazi R, Khajeh A. GA-Based Optimal LQR Controller to Improve LVRT Capability of DFIG Wind Turbines. IJEEE. 2013; 9 (3) :167-176

[15] Lima, F.K.A.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Watanabe, E.H.; Blaabjerg, F.; , "Rotor Voltage Dynamics in the Doubly Fed Induction Generator During Grid Faults," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.25, no.1, pp.118-130, Jan. 2010

[16] Jiaqi Liang; Wei Qiao; Harley, R.G.; , "Direct transient control of wind turbine driven DFIG for low voltage ride-through," Power Electronics and Machines in Wind Applications, 2009. PEMWA 2009. IEEE , vol., no., pp.1-7, 24-26 June 2009

[17] Rathi, M.R.; Mohan, N.; , "A novel robust low voltage and fault ride through for wind turbine application operating in weak grids," Industrial Electronics Society, 2005. IECON 2005. 31st Annual Conference of IEEE , vol., no., pp. 6 pp., 6-10 Nov. 2005

[18] Gomis-Bellmunt, O.; Junyent-Ferre, A.; Sumper, A.; Bergas-Jan, J.; , "Ride-Through Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Under Unbalanced Voltage Sags," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.23, no.4, pp.1036-1045, Dec. 2008

[19]  Yi Zhou; Bauer, P.; Ferreira, J.A.; Pierik, J.; , "Operation of Grid-Connected DFIG Under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Condition," Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on , vol.24, no.1, pp.240-246, March 2009

[20] Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Huajie; , "A combined protection and control strategy to enhance the LVRT capability of a wind turbine driven by DFIG," Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2010 2nd IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.703-707, 16-18 June 2010

[21] Abbey, C.; Joos, G.; , "Short-term energy storage for wind energy applications," Industry Applications Conference, 2005. Fourtieth IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2005 , vol.3, no., pp. 2035- 2042 Vol. 3, 2-6 Oct. 2005

[22] Abbey, C.; Wei Li; Owatta, L.; Joos, G.; , "Power Electronic Converter Control Techniques for Improved Low Voltage Ride Through Performance in WTGs," Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2006. PESC '06. 37th IEEE , vol., no., pp. 1- 6, 18-22 June 2006

[23] Erlich, I.; Wrede, H.; Feltes, C.; , "Dynamic Behavior of DFIG-Based Wind Turbines during Grid Faults," Power Conversion Conference - Nagoya, 2007. PCC '07 , vol., no., pp.1195-1200, 2-5 April 2007

[24] Amini, J.; Kazemzahed, R.; Madadi Kojabadi, H.; , "Performance enhancement of indirect matrix converter based variable speed Doubly-Fed induction generator," Power Electronic & Drive Systems & Technologies Conference (PEDSTC), 2010 1st , vol., no., pp.450-455, 17-18 Feb. 2010

[25] Reyes, E.; Pena, R.; Cardenas, R.; Clare, J.; Wheeler, P.; , "Control of a Doubly-fed Induction Generator with an Indirect Matrix Converter with changing DC voltage," Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1230-1235, 4-7 July 2010

[26] Wenlang Deng; Zhiyong Chen; Liming Zhou; Yu Yang; , "Research on the performance of low voltage ride-through for doubly fed induction generator excited by two-stage matrix converter," Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2009. IPEMC '09. IEEE 6th International , vol., no., pp.638-643, 17-20 May 2009